Technology

Artificial Intelligence

Ina Marwaha specifies at length about the concept of artificial intelligence as a new age phenomenon, and whose advancements present a whole new array of perks.
She also comments upon the utility of artificial intelligence in various fields viz. Computer Science, handwriting recognition etc., along with presenting the future prospects of the growth of such a phenomenon.


What is Artificial Intelligence?

Human beings have been working since the Stone Age to minimize their effort and to maximize the comfort to live a high quality life. And this is one of those attempts which use more than just any of the sciences. To produce someone who is intelligent yet artificial, is very challenging and interesting. Creating machines to simulate human behavior has its own benefits and risks.

A mind which knows what is good or bad, which judges and acts according to situations and different environments, seems quite brilliant of an idea. But this thought needs to be implicated very carefully or else the results can be devastating.

Artificial Intelligence is not just about any one field but implies psychology, computer sciences, mathematics, linguistic, philosophy and neurosciences. It has long been an idea bringing to life intelligent beings. The Greeks had their own myths about robots, so did the Chinese about intelligent creatures. It’s been a long wish of human to defy the gods. To create an individual by themselves, this very thought was the root cause for the birth of Artificial Intelligence. The Grandfather of Artificial Intelligence ,Mr. Hobbes, visualized human behavior to be symbolic and tried to observe a trend or a pattern and then came the computer, which revolutionized the world altogether. Mr. Charles Babbage, the father of computers, created an entity, which is very gave the world the pace it is changing today. Mr. Alan Turing, came up with his own turing machine, breaking the enigma, and leaving everyone amazed at his mind and work.

As research on this field grew, the people realized the importance of producing machines that could work as efficient and fast as humans, with the slight possibility of an error only. Pascal was the first mathematician to produce a digital calculator that could perform the calculations within the blink of an eye and the world hasn’t looked back then.
Alan Turing is recognized as the main developer of this technology who came up with a test which tests a computer for its intelligence. He states, “If a human interacts with a machine such that he isn’t able to differentiate it from a human, the machine is artificially intelligent”.

Many different machines and tests were developed to create a simulation of a human being and witnessed the first national conference of American association for artificial intelligence (AAAI) IN 1980. And in 1997, the first Artificial Intelligence computer deep blue defeated the chess champion of that time, Gary Kasparov.


CURRENT STATE OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

Not does a day pass by, that we do not get news about advancement in the field of Artificial Intelligence. From making simplest of the calculations to the much wider aspect of preserving our environment, seems like everyone is trying to make out gadgets, computers smarter, better, self-aware and a simulation of the human behavior. Although artificial intelligent being already defines, its implications and state seems much beyond it and humans are still unaware of its scope.

Following are some of the wider applications of Artificial Intelligence in the present world :

a) Speech Recognition: Speech Recognition has replaced keyboard and mouse as a means of communication with the computer. Many users find it convenient to interact with the computer using speech recognition; they give instructions to the computer using this mechanism. Speech Recognition is used by United Airlines for giving flight information like flight number and city name.

b) Handwriting Recognition: Many cellphones these days are offering handwriting recognition in which the phone recognizes the text written by the user and converts it into equivalent ASCII text. The Handwriting Recognizer identifies the shapes of the characters and then converts them to the ASCII code. Even face recognition and optical character recognition has been developed under Artificial Intelligence.

c) Heuristic Classification: Artificial Intelligence is used great deal in heuristic classification such as credit cards. All information about the owner of the card, about the transactions he commits and the information about whether the customer has committed any fraud in the past or not.

d) Manufacturing Industry: About 1.1 million working robots exist in the world. Many of them are employed in the manufacturing department. About 80% of car manufacturing is done by the robots.

e) Computer Science: Artificial Intelligence has made immense changes in the computer world enabling the developments of time sharing systems, real-time systems. Modern programming techniques like the symbolic programming, dynamic programming, functional programming and object oriented programming are developed because of the inculcation of Artificial Intelligence in the computers.

f) Journalism: Artificial Intelligence had advanced Robots to such a level that they are being used by new channels to write business documents and earning reports.

g) Emergency Services: Artificial Intelligence can be implemented in emergency situations like firefighting, ambulance services etc.

h) Gaming: Artificial Intelligence in gaming is used to develop non-player characters (NPCs), procedural content generation and to perform data mining on user behavior.


FUTURE PROSPECTS OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

The boom in the coming years about the artificial intelligence is going to be “Integrative Artificial Intelligence” in which more capable systems will be developed by combining speech, natural language, machine learning, planning and vision together.

In the future Artificial Intelligence will be enchasing the life of humans by improving education system, transportation, healthcare, business etc. In the coming years we will see Artificial Intelligence progressing in the restricted domains such as expert systems, Internet Agents and Chess programs.

The main development in Artificial Intelligence will be in following areas :

a) Education: Soon Robots will be able to imitate like humans so that they can learn from their failures and successes.

b) Neuroscience: More development in this field will lead to Robots brain getting more and more features of the human brain.

c) Robot Intelligence: The Robots will become more intelligent in the future owing to large storage capacity and high speed memory.

d) Human-Robot Interaction: Robots will be able to interact with humans in a better way since they will be able to understand the emotional quotient in the speech as well as gestures of the human beings.

e) Robot-Robot Interaction: With the growing interaction between Robots and humans, even the Robot-Robot interaction will improve. Robots will be able to work in teams as in military and fire-fighting.

f) Role in the society: Robots will perform important functions in the society like janitor, nurses, taxi drivers, police etc. due to increasing demand in the society.

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