Governance · Public Policy

Green Energy: An Analysis


There is a direct relationship between the population of a nation and pollution because more the population more is the pollution created by it. Population of a nation cannot be controlled within a short span of time but pollution can be controlled just by a few measures, which can be termed as Green Measures. Some measures can be at individual level like saving water, electricity, fuels, etc. Some may be at a mass level which involves energy production through renewable resources like sunlight, sea tides, airy winds, etc.

When we talk about Green Energy, we must talk about Sustainable Development as these two terms seems to have a nexus by the way as they both tend to lower the emission of carbon in the atmosphere. The only difference between both is that in green energy, there is zero emission whereas in sustainable development there is lower level of emission.

Though, in the absolute sense, the term green energy refers to the energy with zero emissions, i.e., through renewable natural resources like air, water and sunlight. But due to the high cost of installation, it is not possible for the general public to afford such green burden presently.


In order to overcome this problem of increasing pollution, development must be done in the form of sustainable development. India has started making a tremendous improvement towards development on a green mark. Western – Central India which receives a good amount of SOLAR ENERGY (sunlight) for most part of the year is a good solar hub. In fact, Welspun Solar MP project, the largest solar power plant in India set up at a cost of Rs. 1,100 crore on 305 hectares of land. The project of a 130MW solar power plant at Bhagwanpur in Neemuch was launched by Ex-Gujarat Chief Minister, Shri Narendra Modi is again an example of India tending towards green energy. A newly solar policy has been designed according to which Rajasthan will be fashioned as a hub for solar power in which major cities like Jodhpur, Jaisalmer, Barmer and Bikaner districts  would have a production capacity of 1000MW.


Corporate sector is also tracing research and development by boosting itself with a huge investment in the same field. If we talk about companies manufacturing ELECTRIC APPLIANCES, they first invented CFL’s, which were consuming lesser energy than a bulb, now they have invented LED’s which consumes a negligible amount of electricity leading to the saving of the same, at a mass level automatically. In the most recent times, Mr. Modi has not only organized a Campaign for a Clean India (Swacch Bharat Abhiyaan) but also a Champaign on Green India by organizing a one day camp in the Capital in which people could exchange their CFL ’s with less power consuming LED ’s The Government under this campaign, provided them subsidy of Rs.400 on each LED bulb as well. The same plan is sought to be implemented in Faridabad.


Companies established for MANUFACTURING AUTOMOBILES are also becoming efficient by manufacturing environment friendly vehicles. 100 ’s of millions of cars run daily, each time emitting dangerous greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Companies are manufacturing vehicles which use electricity, thus causing a lower level of pollution. Production of hybrid vehicles has delivered for the rider an absolute performance, along with being environment friendly, as it uses electricity along with fuel to bring efficiency. In recent times Toyota, an automobile manufacturer, has announced its first hydrogen powered car to be launched soon. In Bengaluru, the country’s first electric bus has being launched which gives zero emission for transport. Through these steps, India has made important progress on renewable energy, low-carbon alternatives, and increased energy efficiency; however, much of the potential in this area still remains unrealized. These are the few live illustrations which have been witnessed towards a “Green India”.


There are various other WIND POWER companies like Enercon India Ltd., Kenersys India Pvt. Ltd., etc.,  which have production houses for manufacturing windmills which on applying the concepts of physics, convert wind energy into electric energy, i.e., wind energy into mechanical energy signifying India to be the 5th largest windmill electricity producer in the world. States which endure a good velocity of air are Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Kerala- the governments of which have installed windmills in these states with the aggregate power production of 21264 Mega Watt.


Enhancement of research in the field of tidal energy is also required for a better tomorrow. TIDAL POWER, also calledtidal energy, is a form of hydropower that converts the energy of tides into useful forms of power, mainly electricity. Although not yet widely used, tidal power has potential for future electricity generation. Tides are more predictable than wind energy and solar power. Among sources of renewable energy, tidal power has traditionally suffered from relatively high cost and limited availability of sites with sufficiently high tidal ranges or flow velocities, thus constricting its total availability. However, many recent technological developments and improvements, both in design (e.g. dynamic tidal power, tidal lagoons) and turbine technology (e.g. new axial turbines, cross flow turbines), indicate that the total availability of tidal power may be much higher than assumed previously. Indian has more than 49% of its border in as a sea shore, thus enabling the country, a future opportunity,  in order to produce electricity from tides.

DAMMING SOLUTIONS have very successfully proven to be good sources (renewable) for generating power. Dam is a manmade structure which is built across a river to not only control its flow but also to improve navigation and regulate flooding. India has 3200 dams, which were constructed till 2012 possessing a production capacity of more than 115.6 TWh i.e. 33600 GW. In September 1882, in Appleton, Wisconsin, the first dam was built. Since then, over 2044 billion-kilowatt hours of hydroelectricity have been produced each day, worldwide.


BIOFUELS include a wide range of fuels which are derived from biomass. The term covers solid biofuel, liquid biofuel, and gaseous biofuel. Liquid biofuel includes bioalcohols, such as bioethanol, and oils, such as biodiesel. Gaseous biofuel includes biogas, landfill gas and synthetic gas. Bioethanol is an alcohol made by fermenting the sugar components of plant materials and it is made mostly from sugar and starch crops. These include maize, sugar cane and, more recently, sweet sorghum. Biodiesel is made from vegetable oils, animal fats or recycled greases. Biodiesel can be used as a fuel for vehicles in its pure form, but is usually used as a diesel additive to reduce levels of particulates, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons in diesel-powered vehicles. Biodiesel is produced from oils or fats using transesterification and is the most common biofuel in Europe. Aviation biofuel is a biofuel used for aircraft. It is considered by some to be the primary means by which the aviation industry can reduce its carbon footprint. After a multi-year technical review from aircraft makers, engine manufacturers and oil companies, biofuels were approved for commercial use in July 2011.


Jatropha oil is produced from the seeds of the Jatropha curcas, a plant that grows in wastelands across India in the states like Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Rajasthan and Maharashtra. This oil is considered to be an excellent source of bio-diesel. India is keen on reducing its dependence on coal and petroleum to meet its increasing energy demand and encouraging Jatropha cultivation is a crucial component for its energy policy.

The ex President of India, Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam, is one of the strong advocates of Jatropha cultivation for the production of bio-diesel. In his recent speech, the Former President said, that out of the 600,000 km² of wasteland that is available in India over 300,000 km² are suitable for Jatropha cultivation. Once this plant is grown the plant has a useful lifespan of several decades. During its life, Jatropha requires very little water when compared to other cash crops.



Through the above stated live examples, an indisputable fact becomes manifested, that India is among the most attractive nations for investment in renewable energy resources. These steps of saving energy at a small scale, at individual levels, can lead to preserving energy at a mass level.


These steps are being taken to reduce the emission of pollutants namely carbon particles, thus making the aim of the Clean Energy Champaign, reduction of the emission of carbon dioxide. Here, question arises, as to when we replace electricity in place of liquid fuel; it won’t solve the problem of carbon emission as carbon dioxide is emitted while producing electricity as well. But this is a sustainable solution, as it will increase the share of low carbon and while doing so, it secures stable energy supply to meet economic development goals as well.

The more we use natural and renewable resources, the more it is beneficial to the earth, its atmosphere and its people. It is true that even today people are struggling in metro cities from pollution which not only affects its citizens but also the monuments.

With the increasing use of the above stated methods and techniques at mass scale, there will be better, cleaner, healthier and livable attractive environment in India which will be healthier not only for us but for our neighboring states as well.



About the Author

Deepak PanwarDeepak is a third year student pursuing B.B.A., LL.B. from Raffles University, Rajasthan. His areas of interest are administration, corporate and political laws. He wishes to make himself better in research and drafting skills. He has interned with several NGOs and under various advocates.  In his spare time, he likes to swim, play table tennis or read. Currently, he is interning with the Model Governance Foundation.

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